The decades after independence have seen tremendous changes in the status and position of the women in Indian society. The Constitution of India has laid down as a fundamental right the equality of sexes. But, the change from a position of utter degradation of women to a position of equality is not a simple case of the progress of women in the modern era. To uplift the status of women, many legislations pertaining to women were enacted after independence.
These were mainly related to marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and employment. The above legislations and many other emancipatory actions of the social reformers have no doubt raised the status of women in India but still much is to be done in this field. The institution of bigamy man marrying any number of women has almost come to an end; if detected, it has become a punishable offence. Today, both sexes have the right to a civil marriage. Thus, monogamy along with facility of judicial separation, nullity and divorce even on mutual consent , inheritance equal share in paternal property , adoption, widow remarriage and sati abolition are some of the salient features of post-independence era which put men and women on equal footings from the point of view of legislative measures.
However, social legislations have not been very effective in India because of many reasons.
One important reason is that most of the women are not fully aware of the measures adopted by the state for their upliftment and even if aware they do not use them because of the old social values that are still persisting. These traditions and values inhibit them to take any revolutionary steps. Legal or legislative sanctions alone cannot bring any substantial change in the downtrodden position of women unless there is a marked change in their attitude and consciousness of men and women both.
http://spielelieferant.de/error/allgemeiner-anzeiger/3125.php In this regard, their illiteracy is one of the great hindrances. According to the Census, Even literate women also do not exercise their right of equality wherever it is required. Thus, the status of women has been raised in the eyes of law, but they are still far from equal to men in every sphere of life. In practice, they continue to suffer discrimination, harassment, humiliation and exploitation in and outside home.
Theoretically, women might have been given more freedom but in practice, they still suffer many hardships, inhuman dignities and unworthy treatment everywhere. Within the home, she is still not treated at par with her male counterpart. Sometimes, the birth of a girl is regarded as a bad omen.
They are not treated as equals to men, and not given due respect in the family 75 per cent women are in labour force but only 0. The power to govern the home and the authority still rests in the hands of male head of the household. The dominant father model still persists in most of the middle and lower class families. Leaving aside a few, in the so-called modern families wives have not become equal partners to their husbands even if they are well-educated or more educated to their husbands. There is no significant change in the attitude of the males even in the families where females are working outside the home.
In some families, it is seen that husbands do not allow their wives of the same caliber and education to take up any job assignment of the same status outside the home. They prefer their educated wives should utilize their energies just in home management and rearing and caring of children or old parents. In professional field their condition is also not better. Till recently, women from the higher castes were not allowed to work outside the home for some remunerative job. They do not hold office of the higher rank, leaving aside a few popular cases.
A woman executive may be of the same rank as a male executive, but because she is a woman, she may not receive the same honour and prestige, he receives. The case of super cop Kiran Bedi is well known. She was superseded for the post of Delhi Police Commissioner by a man two years junior to her in service.
There are still any numbers of other victims who wither unseen. Furthermore, women earn less than men have less access to more prestigious better paying occupations even when they are equal in all respects. The best example is provided by the rural India, where in theory women are equated with goddess, but in actual practice, they are treated as drudges.
Variety of essays on status of women in India are given below to help However, women status in the Indian society got deteriorated in the middle ages. Free Essay: Status of Women in Indian Society The worth of a civilization can be Even today in some Islamic countries women are not allowed to go out freely.
The problems of inferiority, inequality, dependence and the exploitation experienced by women have not much changed in the villages, where most of the India lives, even after 65 years of independence. One of the main characteristics of women is her multi-tasking dexterity. She is usually the one who handles home as well as occupational field or office. To conclude, let us quote Jessie Bernard who argued that the status of women cannot be compared with that of men. It is generally said that men have higher status because they are usually better educated and have more organizational skills and experience than women.
In addition to these, women acquire their status from their husbands, that they are socialized to think themselves as inferior, and they are physio-psychologically conditioned, to use the modern term, they are programmed to be wives and mothers, non-competitive with men because they are less able to compete.
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O mankind! We created you from a single pair of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other. Verily the most honored of you in the sight of God is one who is the most righteous of you. And God has full knowledge and is well acquainted with all things.
Renowned Muslim woman scholar Dr. Riffat Hassan has rightly concluded in one of her articles that in spite of the fact that the Holy Quran is particularly solicitous about women's wellbeing and development, women have been the targets of the most serious human rights violation in Muslim societies. Not Islam but the contrariety that exists between Quranic ideals and practice of a number of women -related issues contributes to a large extent the present status of women. There is no one model of an Indian women, and therefore no way to truly pin down her status without examining these changing aspects which build this status in society.
However, despite these nuances in the status of an Indian women based off of these different factors. We will focus here on the legal discrimination against indigenous women in Canada that came with the Indian Act of and the amendment of , how those two events influenced women.
We will first study why indigenous women have been more discriminated than. In specific, Aboriginal women have suffered through racism, sexism, domestic violence, and over-representation. Through the implementation of the Indian Act, Aboriginal women have been forced to abandon their culture in order to assimilate into Canadian society. The effects of colonization has changed the way Aboriginal women are treated; emotionally and physically, and therefore are the source of oppression today. The Indian Act was created. Originally, women played a large role in the political zone, as well as essential roles in their societies.
Essentially, women in Aboriginal societies, were once considered to be integral parts to their society, and through the many attempts of assimilation from the Europeans, the women now have an insignificant role in their societies. Correspondingly, in the present year of , women in Aboriginal societies seem to have no political power. However, in the interrelated world everyone is influenced either positively or negatively by the decisions of individuals or states UNIFEM Gender inequality in India is described as a preferential treatment arising out of prejudice based on the gender.
In Cheesman, David ed. Retrieved 7 February Thus the Laws of Manu severely reduced the property rights of women, recommended a significant difference in ages between husband and wife and the relatively early marriage of women, and banned widow remarriage. Retrieved 15 March Sarojini Naidu , a poet and freedom fighter , was the first Indian woman to become President of the Indian National Congress and the first woman to become the governor of a state in India. According to this act, the juvenile age has been 16 years from 18 years in cases of heinous offenses.
The aim of this research is to discuss the status of women in India in the past, present and future and discuss any political movements which took place in the society in order for Women to be regarded as equal. BODY India has always been. Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayana suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period.
Rigvedic verses suggest that the women married at a mature age and were probably free to select their husband.