Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Apr 9; Accepted Jun This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Wireless local area network WLAN is a technology that combines computer network with wireless communication technology. Introduction In recent years, with the rapid development of wireless communication technology, the WLAN communication system has also flourished, and the applied range in the market is increasingly wide [ 1 , 2 ].
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Design Theory 2.
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Introduction to Microstrip Antennas A microstrip antenna is a resonant radiator, whose radiation field is produced by the electromagnetic field of mutual-motivation between the upper radiation patch edges of microstrip antenna and the grounding plate, and constantly radiates out electromagnetic waves through the gap between them [ 16 , 17 ]. Figure 2. Antenna Structure Design In Figure 3 , the structure chart of printed monopole antenna is presented. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. The Results of Antenna Simulation After optimization, the final parameters of the antenna are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 The parameters of the optimized antenna unit: mm. Figure 9. Figure Antenna Structure Design The antenna structure is shown in Figure The Choice of Antenna Slotting Form The microstrip antenna can be slotted to achieve multi band, and the slot form is varied.
Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Liu Y. The radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo-etched on the dielectric substrate. Wireless local area networks WLAN. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer.
Parameter S 11 of the antenna without a slot. S 11 parameter curve of the optimized antenna. S 11 parameter curve of the antenna with a stepped groove. Improved Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna In order to eliminate the third frequency point, we now improve the antenna structure shown in Figure S 11 parameter curve of the improved antenna.
Conclusions In this paper, two dual-band antennas according to the demand of WLAN for multi frequency communication are designed. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
References 1. Park H. IEEE Trans. Theory Tech.
Ngan T. Joseph W. Determination of the duty cycle of WLAN for realistic radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure assessment. Ziegler V. Wang Z. Antennas Propag. Mehdipour A. Khodabakhshi H. Irradiation of a six-layered spherical model of human head in the near field of a half-wave dipole antenna. Islam M.
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Hsu H. Ali M. Pereira J. A new design and analysis of a hexagonal PBG microstrip antenna. Parmanand S. Bandwidth and gain enhanceent in microstrip antenna array for 8 GHz frequency applications; Proceedings of the Students Conference on Engineering and Systems; Allahabad, India. Yang Z. Bandwidth enhancement of a polarization-reconfigurable patch antenna with stair-slots on the ground. Souza R. Peng C. Modeling printed monopole antenna with coplanar ground-plane by gaussian filter model analysis. Design of a mutual coupling compensation network for a small receiving monopole array.
Miniaturization of patch antenna using metasurface. Sharma S. Sol-gel auto combustion processed soft Z-type hexa nanoferrites for microwave antenna miniaturization. Kundu A. Design of compact dual-band co-axially fed microstrip antenna for 2. Waves Appl. Qing X. A wideband circularly polarized stacked slotted microstrip patch antenna. Many times omnidirectional antenna is used in mobile phones.
There are different kinds of antennae like planar inverted-F antenna, folded inverted conformal antenna and mono pole. Also retractable whip antenna is commonly used in handsets. The phone is subdivided into roughly 60 components, each consisting of hundreds or even thousands of individual facets.
The internal structure of a mobile handset is shown in Fig. In the treatment of malignant tumours , microwave energy is said to be the most effective way of inducing hyperthermia. The radiator to be used for this purpose should be light-weight, easy to handle and rugged. Only a patch radiator fulfils these requirements.
The initial designs of microstrip radiators for inducing hyperthermia were based on printed dipoles and annular rings that were designed on S-band GHz. Later on the design was based on a circular microstrip disk at L-band GHz. Two coupled microstrip lines with a flexible separation are used to measure temperature inside the human body. There are some applications at present where antennae are used to continuously monitor biometric data of the human body. In order to do this, they need to be so close to the human body all the time that they can continuously monitor the biometric data and send the information to the outside world.
If the antenna is hard, it cannot be kept always attached with the human body. An antenna made of textile material will not harm the human body and can be worn for extended periods. Wearable antennae will find use in healthcare, recreation, fire-fighting, etc.
buytumodi.tk Textile materials are increasingly being used for development of flexible wearable systems due to the recent miniaturisation of wireless devices. For flexible antennae, textile materials form interesting substrates, because fabric antennae can be easily integrated into clothes. In this special type of patch antenna, the radiating patch and the ground plane are made up of conductive textile material.
The substrate too is a textile material with specific dielectric constant. As everything is made up of textile material, it is called textile antenna. Textile antennae are still under testing, so they are rarely in focus. Patil is professor and head, and Prof.
Sir your information is very useful to us. Is it possible to explain where the ground plane reference plane should be located, relative to the antenna and why? I am trying to decide my topic for phd. Here I got little info.