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But in other cases, there are more direct financial incentives. China, for example, gives its researchers cash for publishing, especially in influential journals, and perhaps as a result, it also hosts a disproportionate number of hyperprolific authors.

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A: In most scientific disciplines, there are strict criteria that you need to contribute to the paper in some way. You also need to see the final version and agree with it.

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The short term price reaction to a sale is likely to be a result of temporary price pressure. For broader coverage of this topic, see Scholarly communication. The decrease of the aggregate saving rate as individuals retire has an upward impact which is never strong enough. To make matters worse, the circulation of many humanities journals in the s declined to almost untenable levels, as many libraries cancelled subscriptions, leaving fewer and fewer peer-reviewed outlets for publication; and many humanities professors' first books sell only a few hundred copies, which often does not pay for the cost of their printing. The practice is used to please top professionals in the hierarchy, increasing the chances of publishing the paper with the inclusion of names already sanctioned and well-known, or even increase the scientific production through "reciprocity agreements" or exchange favors among researchers. All the published papers are submitted to the major indexing services for indexing.

A: About half of the authors we found were in the medical and life sciences. A few things are going on here. Another is that some fields like epidemiology collect large amounts of data and dole out their analyses one paper at a time, allowing authors to rack up a large number of publications from a single project. When cardiologists become directors of major clinical and research centers, for example, they can see their authorship go up fold.

Their names get embedded in what their center produces.

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Q: Why is it such a big deal if some authors stretch the definition of authorship? I think both are in danger. And in terms of responsibility, it also raises some issues about reproducibility and quality. With papers that have extremely large numbers of contributors, is there anyone who can really take responsibility for all that work? Do they really know what has happened?

The pressure to publish or perish, or to win administrative funding, contributes to an environment where the rules get softened. So we need to think of solutions at the systematic level, rather than at the level of singular people.

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Journals could, in theory, try to set a standard. Systems that track authorship might experiment with fractional credit: If you publish with more authors, you get a smaller fraction of the credit.

We also have to demand that contribution descriptions become more accurate. Did most of them just contribute a comma or a period? We need a system that better recognizes and gives credit for the real work those scientists are doing.

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In academic publishing, a paper is an academic work that is It contains original research results or reviews existing results. Apr 4, While there are several types of research articles, such as short communications, review papers and so forth, these guidelines focus on.

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