In the spring of the Civil Rights and Disabilities Law Clinic the Clinic at Albany Law School, examined disaster planning in ten counties in upstate New York to evaluate the extent to which these counties were including individuals with disabilities in the disaster planning process, and in those counties where the inclusion of this population was not a part of disaster planning, to advocated for a more inclusive process.
History shows that individuals with disabilities are disproportionately harmed by disasters with a mortality rate that is two to four times higher for individuals with disabilities.
Through a number of cases across the county and major disasters in the last few decades, big cities are developing a greater awareness that particular attention to the needs of individuals with disabilities is critical for the preparation, remediation and management of disasters. However, Disasters are not experienced in cities alone. Small towns, suburban areas and rural areas can experience disasters as well. In these regions, lack of planning can also have tragic results. This article is broken into four parts.
The aim of this article is to raise awareness and understanding, provide guidance for developing a municipal disaster preparedness process that is consistent with legal obligations created to protect the civil rights of individuals with disabilities and recommend steps that will improve outcomes of future disasters. Keywords: emergency management, disaster, disability, inclusive, Americans with Disabilities, discrimination. Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation. Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic. Legal Education eJournal.
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The inclusion and exclusion criteria were as follows, using the high sensitive approach. Papers were expected to meet all of these criteria. Peer-reviewed secondary studies [ 29 ]. Preparedness: the aggregate of all measures and policies adopted by the health system before an event occurs that promotes mitigation of the damage caused by an event and minimizes the dysfunction that could result from the damage [ 30 ]. Disaster: serious condition beyond the normal capacity of the local community to cope, thereby, justifying external assistance [ 31 ].
Articles doing general literature review or overview without mentioning explicit search strategy and methodology.
Addressing response or recovery in disasters even if the results could be useful for preparedness. We defied relative recall as:. Number of included secondary articles spotted by hand searching in two top key journals. Results for synonyms are demonstrated in Table 1. Out of articles, Results of the final syntax search in PubMed is shown in Table 2.
The adopted syntax in Scopus resulted in articles. Out of 28 volumes of PDM journal from s, 10 articles were included, out of which 5 were not spotted in PubMed search with the proposed syntax. In each journal, there was one article which was not detected in hand searching but included in PubMed search because of human error. Totally there were 25 articles included in hand searching, 15 of which were duplicated in comparison with the PubMed search.
Share article. The emergency plan should determine how to transform information on hazards to advice or orders on how to react. The protection of these systems and assets, and within the energy sector especially, the safeguarding of oil and gas infrastructure from any and all internal and external threats, should become the top priority of the UAE and other oil-providing nations against asymmetric threats Bi, This paper explores the disaster preparedness of the Emirati energy sector by specifically focusing, through worker surveys, on two electricity plants located in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. As time wears on, both small and large changes will occur. A significant portion of a good emergency plan will provide instructions on how to relay information to the general public.
The title of articles which were found only by hand searching are noted in Table 3. The relative recall was 0. This study is the cornerstone of a systematic review to synthesize the existing literature on public health preparedness measurement for disasters that will guide future work on intervention development in this field. The concepts of response and preparedness are intertwined; performing preparedness measures might result in an improved response, while the experience gained from the response might bring about superior preparedness.
As a result, it is probable that in articles considered by the authors to be focused on preparedness, actually the response to a disaster, the gained experience, and the disaster characteristics have been presented, or the requirements of an appropriate response may have been investigated [ 32 ]. Nevertheless, as a result of the dispersal of applicable articles, the searching process can be highly demanding.
Additionally, many users lack the required skill to search databases.
www.juraa.com/images/autobiographies/a-candle-shrouded-in-darkness.php The factor of the indexing limitations also adds to the search challenges [ 33 ]. The objective regarding this situation is to document a proper syntax to investigate the literature related to health disaster preparedness. Birnbaum et al. While they do not have any category belonging to preparedness, it seems that this research is included in the Epidemiological category. On the other hand, the methodological structure of the studies was not uniform, for example a secondary study might not be mentioned as a secondary in its title or abstract so one cannot rely only on the title or abstract.
This might be the reason why in spite of Birnbaum et al. PubMed search sensitivity might be the reason why these articles are not being included in the syntax search. Researchers focusing on a new systematic review or looking for updates on certain topics, who as an element of their inclusive criteria employ a method filter, would mainly benefit from the most sensitive search, although they may come up with loads of irrelevant articles and reviews. Searchers wish for searching instruments which are precise and responsive enough to turn in results which are as relevant as possible, while excluding as many irrelevant data as possible.
To this purpose, searching methods are most applicable which focus on the highest levels of sensitivity and specificity, but a low level of difference, which, however, does not eliminate the later need for discarding irrelevant results [ 32 ]. A common problem of search results in non-clinical fields is a bulk of irrelevant results which follow from a shortage of technical terms, such as those used in the clinical- fields, as well as employing non-technical terms in search operations [ 27 ]. Hence, in case of health disaster management reviews, it would be difficult to have greater precision without compromising sensitivity.
Adopting strategies for applying definite guidelines for the structure and writing of articles might obtain greater precision. Applying these operators alongside relevant technical terminology can help to promote search results to a great extent [ 32 ]. Hence, measures to increase the sensitivity of the search results are as follows: developing definite meanings for health disaster management terminology, revising MeSH and Emtree terms, and adopting new strategies to emphasize on applying unified structures by the authors.
Creating technical terms for the field of health disaster management would be of great value.
View Disaster Preparedness Research Papers on nlimarbrowtiotrum.ga for free. A Study on Disaster Awareness And Preparedness Among College Students In District Ganderbal of Kashmir Valley. Article (PDF Available).
Collectively, all these measures would make the result as effective as desired. Secondly, syntax search was performed only in PubMed, consequently, specific tags for systematic reviews and reviews are available only in PubMed. Obviously, using the original articles would result in a bulk of articles whose review would call for a budget of time disproportionate with the scope of this study. Therefore, the approved labels [sb] and [pt] were applied to spot the secondary related articles.
If any researcher wishes to use the original articles, it will be possible through using our suggested syntax. Thirdly, hand searching was performed only in two top of the current, peer-reviewed health disaster journals.
Fourthly, hand searching in DMPHP journal was available only from ; and fifthly, human error in hand searching mostly because of lacking a unified structure. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Bull Emerg Trauma v. Bull Emerg Trauma. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Tehran, Iran. Abstract Objective: To find a proper search strategy to do a systematic review related to preparedness for disasters.
Results: Out of articles, were included. Conclusion: The proposed syntax in this study achieves a sensitivity of search of 0. Key Words: Disaster, Health, Preparedness. Introduction It is estimated that approximately half of the population of the world experienced a disaster between and with an unfortunate increase in the casualty and destruction intensity [ 1 ]. Inclusion: Related to disasters and emergencies Peer-reviewed secondary studies [ 29 ] Directly addressing preparedness for disasters in the health system.
We defied relative recall as: Number of included secondary articles retrieved by the search strategy in PubMed Relative Recall Number of included secondary articles spotted by hand searching in two top key journals. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Result of syntaxes searched in PubMed updated 16th Aug An Integrative Literature Review. Conflict of interest: No conflict of interest.
References 1. Aliyu A. Management of disasters and complex emergencies in Africa: The challenges and constraints. Ann Afr Med. Am J Community Psychol. PLoS Curr.